How to Write Efficient Code: 10 Beginner-friendly Strategies

Writing efficient code is a critical aspect of software development. A program that runs quickly and consumes less memory will be efficient, user-friendly, and revenue-generating. This article will discuss ten beginner-friendly strategies to help you write efficient code. Whether you are just starting or have been coding for years, these tips will help you write code that is fast, reliable, and easy to maintain.

Utilise Commenting to Clarify Code

One of the simplest ways to write efficient code is by using comments. Comments are used to clarify the logic and purpose of the code. They provide a way to add explanations and information not part of the code itself. This simplifies comprehension of your code by others and its maintenance. Moreover, it may serve to jog your memory when you return to the code later.

Use Flowcharts and Pseudocode for Planning

Before you start writing code, it is essential to have a plan. This can be accomplished by utilising a flowchart or pseudocode. A flowchart provides a visual representation of the flow of control in your program, while a pseudocode is a text representation of the logic. Both of these techniques give you a strategy to design your code and ensure it is effective. Additionally, they can help you anticipate difficulties before they arise.

Break Down Complex Problems into Smaller Tasks

When faced with a complex problem, diving right in and trying to solve it all at once can be tempting. However, this often leads to confusing and inefficient code. Split the difficulty into smaller, easier-to-tackle pieces. This makes comprehending the issue and designing a response simpler. Furthermore, debugging the code is easier if something goes wrong.

Make Good Use of Functions

Functions are a powerful tool for writing efficient code. They allow you to break down a program into smaller, reusable blocks. Functions can also be used to organise code, creating it more straightforward to preserve and comprehend. When using functions, keep them small and focused on one task. This creates it more leisurely to debug the code and reuse the functions in other parts of the program.

Modularise Your Code with Reusable Modules

Reusable modules are an excellent way to improve code efficiency. They provide a way to organise code into smaller, reusable units. It simplifies the process of keeping and troubleshooting code and cutting down on redundant code. When using reusable modules, ensure they are well-documented and easy to use.

Aim for Efficient Algorithms

Algorithms are the backbone of efficient code. When making decisions about algorithms, pick ones that are efficient, understandable, and suitable for the job. Additionally, be mindful of the time and memory complexity of algorithms. Avoid algorithms that are too slow or consume too much memory, as they will negatively impact the performance of your program.

Choose Appropriate Data Structures

Data structures are a critical component of efficient code. Choose data structures that are well-suited to the task at hand. For example, if you need to store a large amount of data, choose a data structure optimised for storage, such as a linked list or an array. Similarly, if you need to perform frequent searches, select a data structure optimised for search, such as a binary search tree.

Avoid Duplication of Code and Data

Duplication of code and data is a common problem in software development. Duplicate code increases the program’s size, making it more difficult to maintain and debug. In addition, it can lead to inconsistencies in the code, making it more difficult to ensure that the code is correct. 

To avoid duplication, consider using functions, modules, or data structures that can be reused throughout the program. You can also use design patterns or libraries to avoid reinventing the wheel.

Utilise Debugging Techniques When Necessary

Debugging is an essential component of software development and can assist you in identifying and resolving security issues with your code. Some common debugging techniques include using print statements, breakpoints, and debuggers. You can also use logging and error handling to help you identify and resolve issues with your code. Make sure to test your code thoroughly, including edge cases, to catch any issues early. You can also attend conferences focused on improving security and speak with community groups of developers to enhance your skills and learn first hand from others in the field.

Learn more about the top 10 cybersecurity conferences in 2023.

Utilise Code Testing Best Practices

Testing your code is an essential part of providing its efficiency. Writing tests help you catch bugs early, reducing the time and effort needed to resolve them. Additionally, tests provide a way to ensure that your code behaves as expected and provides the desired results. 

If you are coding on Java (for example) use automated testing tools and frameworks, such as running in-depth tests for Java microservices. Moreover, use test-driven development (TDD) to write tests before writing the actual code, which can help ensure that the code is efficient and meets the requirements.


Writing efficient code is a crucial aspect of software development that requires careful planning, attention to detail, and a solid understanding of coding best practices. By following the 10 beginner-friendly strategies outlined in this article, you can write code that is fast, reliable, and easy to maintain. Best of luck in doing so!

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